Barlow chevrolet in delran

Umm. I don't see why these topics would be put together in the same sentence

2023.05.31 02:20 lcr727 Umm. I don't see why these topics would be put together in the same sentence

Umm. I don't see why these topics would be put together in the same sentence submitted by lcr727 to insanepeoplefacebook [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 00:15 Reasonable_Profile60 My small collection of Barlow knives. Imperial brand, and one made in Mass or NY I think. Hope you all enjoy!

My small collection of Barlow knives. Imperial brand, and one made in Mass or NY I think. Hope you all enjoy! submitted by Reasonable_Profile60 to SlipjointKnives [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 22:45 reiji_tamashii Research Tool: IIHS vehicle ratings include details on headlight type for most models

This may be old news to some of you, but I found it to be an interesting resource: I recently discovered that the Headlight subsection of the IIHS's Vehicle Ratings lists the type of headlights on each vehicle that they test. The info is very easy to find by searching a model and year, and then navigating to the 'Headlights' heading.
While searching for some of the new-ish vehicles that I've encountered the most issues with, I found that a surprising number of them actually use LED reflectors. Although projectors are not necessarily better (and in many cases worse), I thought that has been widely known for at least 2 decades that LEDs in reflector housings have poor results for both the driver and those on the receiving end. Either auto manufacturers did not get the memo or thought that they could somehow do it better than everyone else.
Some examples that we all love to hate: Honda Civic ( Honda Accord ( Honda Odyssey ( Chevrolet Silverado ( GMC Sierra ( RAM 1500 [some trim levels] ( Toyota RAV4 [some trim levels] ( Toyota Sienna ( Hyundai Sonata [some trim levels] (
Surprise, surprise - the headlights on late model GM trucks & SUVs, while excellent at blinding other motorists, are rated 'Poor' at being headlights.
submitted by reiji_tamashii to fuckyourheadlights [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 21:47 -Carel- [Chevrolet Impala Wagon] in Oegstgeest the Netherlands

[Chevrolet Impala Wagon] in Oegstgeest the Netherlands submitted by -Carel- to spotted [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 19:54 bjohnson203 BUCKY BREAVER BRAD CAUSED CRASH!

submitted by bjohnson203 to NASCARCircleJerk [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 19:31 Siege_5 [WTS] Knives and Lights! PM2 Tanto, Boker brass/micarta

WTS Knives and Lights! Prices are Shipped CONUS Hearing trades and offers, but prefer cash PM for more pics/details Pics:
$110 Boker Barlow Expedition This a barely used, nicely patina’d combo of green micarta handles and brass bolsters. Factory edge. Sat unused for 2+ years.
Withdrawn Pacific Salt 2, H1
SOLD $269 Spyderco PM2 Tanto This has a mirror finish on the edge, from the previous owner. It comes with the attached green shred CF contoured scales and the stock scales. Minor scuffing on the blade, but in great shape. Scales are like new.
$50 58mm Victorinox Scales, Brass This includes a green glow insert and a Ti clip. Used not abused, gorgeous patina.
$69 FW3A, XPL-HI 6000k This light has the old driver that everyone loves. I stripped the blue ano, notice the rough look on the body. Includes a deep carry clip, green button, glow gasket, and SS bezel. This was my intro to enthusiast lights, and it hurts to let it go, but I just don’t like cool emitters, or Anduril 1. Box included.
SOLD $35 D1V2 519a 4500k, black body, RGB switch, magnetic tail switch. I am the first owner and barely used this. It is like new. Warm thrower with a little bit of spill. Excellent pocketable outdoor light. I have a Convoy clip on it but I can swap that if you prefer. Box included.
SOLD! $45 D2 519a, 2700k and 5700k mix, both frosted optics. Green body, amber switch. Magnetic tail cap. Includes: Clip, box, and a Skilhunt headband with a 3D print attachment from Spicy3DPrints! I received this about 2 weeks ago, carried it a couple times, and it’s just not for me. The beam is GORGEOUS with the mix, but I do not like right angle lights as much as I try.
submitted by Siege_5 to Knife_Swap [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 19:07 Aragorn3223 My Experience Using A Rack+Cargo Box on my EUV

My Experience Using A Rack+Cargo Box on my EUV
I recently purchased a rail system for my ‘22 EUV (The Wonderdriver Heavy Duty Roof Rack Cross Bars for Chevy Chevrolet Bolt EUV Bolt-EUV from Amazon at about $140). I mounted our already purchased, but currently unused, Yakima small cargo box (seen in the picture) and took the whole thing on a two day trip with the family. The total load in the car was four adults, two dogs, and a full cargo box of stuff. I was curious to see how the range would drop with the cargo box and while I wasn’t blown away with my range, was somewhat surprised it did so well.
My ultimate findings:
A. My range dropped about 13% based on my estimates from driving in similar conditions before mounting the cargo box. B. My discharge rate was 3.8 miles/kWh over a total of 274 miles of driving C. The temperature over the two days of our trip ranged from 65-87 degrees (F) D. There was a mix of about 20% in town driving with the rest on a 55mph highway. My average speed shows 37.8mph, which seems pretty low, but I suppose the measurement is fairly accurate. E. I kept the climate control at about 72F for the entire trip. Oddly, the climate seemed to have the biggest impact (-13.6 miles) on the trip while the thing I thought would have the worst impact (technique due to the cargo box and increased wind resistance) had the highest rating (+20.5 miles).
My findings are probably nothing special, but I thought it would be worth sharing in case someone else is considering a similar cargo box/setup on their EV or EUV. My car did better than I thought all things considered. 3.8 mi/kWh was higher than I anticipated. I imagine I would have been closer to 4 mi/kWh without the cargo box and a full load in the car.
submitted by Aragorn3223 to BoltEV [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 19:00 xvideos_master Roast my daily driver!

Roast my daily driver!
Chevrolet Spark, really good on gas and is really easy to drive in the city
submitted by xvideos_master to RoastMyCar [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 18:21 trappack420 What’s a fair price for this?

What’s a fair price for this?
I have a 2005 Chevy Suburban 1500 LT 5.3L automatic 4x4 that will not shift into gear and rolls even if the parking brake is engaged. Was told these were the issues (1st pic) just want to have an idea what I’m getting myself into and make sure I’m getting a fair price on any repairs. Thanks!
submitted by trappack420 to AskMechanics [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 18:02 ZachTheLitchKing [CW] Smash 'Em Up Sunday - The Hunters and The Hunted

Original Prompt

The Hunters and the Hunted
The Book Nook was a small bookstore owned by Olivia. She was well known in the neighborhood as a kind lady who let children borrow books as long as they promised to return them. What she was less well known for was her penchant for helping people escape their circumstances and get to places far away from danger. From more mundane things, like children fleeing abusive parents, to more dangerous things, such as an elf fleeing a crazed family of magic hunters. Olivia was a junction in a sort of underground railroad that helped get people away from danger and to safety.
Olivia had been a hunter herself, in a past life. She had been the danger that creatures fled from; the specter in the shadows that kept the boogeyman at bay. That was before she had learned that the things she hunted were, sometimes, people too. Maybe not humans, but people nonetheless. That was why Olivia was so well prepared when a tall man with a pot belly nervously looked around the empty store before approaching.
"Erm, hello, I, uh," the man seemed very uncertain and started to rifle through his pockets. Olivia knew that he was looking for a note that someone else had given him to direct her way. She tapped a corner of the desk patiently, subtly activating a magic sigil hidden under a sticky note that alerted a friend of hers there was someone here.
"Take a deep breath," Olivia said with patience, "Calm down. You're safe here. Can you tell me who sent you?"
"I...yeah, older gentleman," the tall man closed his eyes as he tried to remember his name, "Harlow?"
"Barlow," Olivia corrected, taking the paper when he finally found it, "He's a good man. Sent you my way must mean you're in deep." She read over what Barlow had to say. It was encoded but she knew what it all meant.
"Okay, 'Neil'," she ripped the note up and walked around the counter, "You need to come back here for a bit. I've got a crawlspace you can squeeze into until my friend gets here to pick you up." The tall man had been about to say something but Olivia silenced him when the doorbell rang again. She pointed to the bathroom and went back to the front.
The tiefling standing there was very familiar to Olivia, and the last person she wanted to see.
"Olivia, good to see you," Aisling said as she sauntered over to the counter, "Got company?"
"Not today. Fairly slow because of the rain."
"Look, you need to be honest with me today," Aisling set two gauntleted hands on the counter and leaned forward, "I'm looking for a man named Leon. I've been chasing him for weeks now. He's a fugitive and not someone who needs your help."
"Well I'm sure if a man named Leon comes in, she'll give you a call," a cocky voice chimed in from the door. Olivia and Aisling looked over and saw their mutual friend, Sanguia, standing in the doorway with her hand up to keep the bell from ringing. Olivia felt some relief that she'd been able to get there so quickly while Aisling looked positively miffed; the one person she was not confident she could subdue.
They both went quiet as a kid who looked no more than twelve ran in around Sanguia. He started to peruse some books not too far away.
"Call me if you hear from him," Aisling said, eyeing the kid but talking to Olivia, "Leon. Taller than anyone has a right to be and a potbelly you could hide...I don't know, an encyclopedia set in."
"If I see a tall man of heavy weight, I'll call you," Olivia lied.
"Later, cupcake," Sanguia said as Aisling left.
"Cupcakes sound good!" the kid had left the books and joined Olivia at the counter, his form melting and expanding until the kid was no longer a little boy but a grown woman, "Wanna hit up Sweet Eats after this?"
"Ugh, Leon's in the bathroom Charlie, go check on him and get a look so you can disguise yourself."
"Usual plan?" Sanguia asked, "She sneaks out as the guy and I sneak him to the airport?"
"I think you should sneak Charlie out this time. Aisling knows the game so she'll tail you. I can keep Leon here for a couple of days and...I don't know...put him in a crate?"
"Hahaha! I love it," Sanguia laughed, "Make sure you ship him first-class for comfort and luxury."
"Just let Talix know to handle the parcel with care."
"Don't worry, The Guild will keep him safe. Even Aisling can't reach New Francisco."
Olivia was more worried Aisling would become a hindrance in future rescues for this deception.
This is a Crossover AU:
submitted by ZachTheLitchKing to TomesOfTheLitchKing [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:31 Dry_Western_2342 Air Conditioner Broken in New Car

So my mom just bought a 2017 Chevrolet. Well she didn’t buy it in full she’s going to pay it monthly. The thing is that the air conditioner is broken and the dealership doesn’t want to respond after selling it to her and not mention that the car had anything wrong with it. I think they even told her that if anything was wrong with the car that they would take care of it. Im not sure if we need a compressor or not, she’s just told me about this so Im looking for advice on what we can do. CORRECTION : Used Car
submitted by Dry_Western_2342 to askcarsales [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:13 wdmcarth Daily Bullpen Usage: 05/30/23

Last updated: 05/30/23 17:59:54 EST


Note Description
Italics Pitched previous day or twice in last 3 days.
Strikethrough Pitched back to back days.
Bold Recent transaction.
L3:## Number of pitches thrown in last 3 days.
*** SP first start.
** SP yet to reach 5.0 innings in a game.
* SP yet to surpass 6.0 innings in a game.


ARI COL Zac Gallen Miguel CastroL3:25, Andrew ChafinL3:22 Scott McGoughL3:33 Austin AdamsL3:8, Kyle NelsonL3:31, José RuizL3:8, Kevin Ginkel Drey JamesonL3:59
ATL @OAK Bryce Elder Raisel Iglesias Nick Anderson Collin McHughL3:21 A.J. MinterL3:8, Jesse ChavezL3:13, Joe JiménezL3:30, Kirby YatesL3:27 Lucas LuetgeL3:30
BAL CLE Kyle Gibson Félix BautistaL3:15 Yennier CanoL3:15 Bryan BakerL3:14 Mike BaumannL3:13, Danny CoulombeL3:3, Mychal GivensL3:23, Cionel PérezL3:10 Keegan AkinL3:40
BOS CIN Brayan Bello Kenley JansenL3:13 Chris MartinL3:7 Josh Winckowski Kutter CrawfordL3:27, Joely RodríguezL3:18, Justin Garza, Nick PivettaL3:54 Corey Kluber
CHC TBR Kyle Hendricks** Mark Leiter Jr.L3:16, Adbert Alzolay Michael FulmerL3:38 Michael Rucker Brandon HughesL3:41, Jeremiah EstradaL3:39, Julian MerryweatherL3:13 Javier Assad
CHW LAA Lucas Giolito Liam HendriksL3:27 Kendall GravemanL3:6 Joe KellyL3:41 Reynaldo LópezL3:3, Keynan MiddletonL3:32, Aaron BummerL3:28, Garrett CrochetL3:46 Gregory SantosL3:40
CIN @BOS Ben Lively* Alexis DíazL3:40 Lucas SimsL3:27 Ian GibautL3:29 Alex YoungL3:8, Buck FarmerL3:12, Fernando Cruz, Eduardo Salazar Kevin HergetL3:20
CLE @BAL Cal Quantrill Emmanuel Clase James KarinchakL3:16 Trevor StephanL3:16 Eli MorganL3:16, Enyel De Los SantosL3:29, Sam HentgesL3:23, Nick SandlinL3:19 Xzavion CurryL3:28
COL @ARI Kyle Freeland Pierce JohnsonL3:6 Justin LawrenceL3:33 Jake BirdL3:29 Brent SuterL3:22, Daniel BardL3:19, Brad HandL3:25, Matt CarasitiL3:36 Peter LambertL3:43
DET TEX Alex Faedo* Alex LangeL3:12 Jason FoleyL3:14 Will VestL3:25 José CisneroL3:16, Chasen ShreveL3:8, Tyler HoltonL3:28, Mason EnglertL3:34 Tyler AlexanderL3:9
HOU MIN Brandon Bielak Ryan PresslyL3:37 Bryan AbreuL3:48 Hector NerisL3:15 Ryne StanekL3:9, Phil MatonL3:24, Rafael MonteroL3:17, Seth MartinezL3:12 Parker MushinskiL3:22
KCR @STL Zack Greinke* Scott BarlowL3:27 Aroldis ChapmanL3:27 Taylor ClarkeL3:21 Josh StaumontL3:29, Amir GarrettL3:20, Carlos HernándezL3:28, Jose CuasL3:9, Nick Wittgren Mike MayersL3:76
LAA @CHW Tyler Anderson Carlos EstévezL3:32 Chris DevenskiL3:23 Jacob WebbL3:28 Ben JoyceL3:12, Aaron LoupL3:13, Chase SilsethL3:35, Sam Bachman Tucker Davidson
LAD WSN Tony Gonsolin* Evan PhillipsL3:22, Brusdar GraterolL3:36, Caleb FergusonL3:24 Yency AlmonteL3:26, Shelby MillerL3:35, Victor GonzálezL3:23, Alex Vesia, Justin BruihlL3:16 Phil BickfordL3:43
MIA SDP Sandy Alcantara Dylan FloroL3:13 Tanner ScottL3:21 Huascar BrazobanL3:20 Matt BarnesL3:27, JT ChargoisL3:21, Andrew NardiL3:22, Steven OkertL3:38 Bryan HoeingL3:14
MIL @TOR Adrian Houser* Devin WilliamsL3:26 Peter StrzeleckiL3:29 Joel PayampsL3:15 Hoby Milner, Elvis Peguero, Trevor MegillL3:14, Jake Cousins, Jake Cousins Bryse Wilson
MIN @HOU Joe Ryan Jhoan DuranL3:41 Jorge LópezL3:28 Brock StewartL3:31 Emilio PagánL3:7, Jovani MoranL3:9, Griffin JaxL3:12, Cole SandsL3:16 José De LeónL3:27
NYM PHI Kodai Senga* David Robertson, Adam Ottavino Brooks RaleyL3:6 Drew SmithL3:28, Jeff BrighamL3:45, Dominic LeoneL3:32, Tommy HunterL3:16, Stephen NogosekL3:29 Josh Walker
NYY @SEA Nestor Cortes Michael KingL3:22, Clay HolmesL3:28, Wandy PeraltaL3:25 Ron MarinaccioL3:20, Albert AbreuL3:30, Jimmy CorderoL3:14, Matt Krook Ryan Weber
OAK ATL JP Sears* Trevor MayL3:33, Lucas ErcegL3:47, Richard LoveladyL3:8 Shintaro FujinamiL3:20, Sam Moll, Austin PruittL3:29, Sam LongL3:26 Ken WaldichukL3:16
PHI @NYM Ranger Suárez* Craig KimbrelL3:19 Seranthony Domínguez Matt StrahmL3:24 Gregory Soto, Connor BrogdonL3:18, Jeff HoffmanL3:41, Andrew VasquezL3:38, Yunior MarteL3:27 Dylan CoveyL3:30
PIT @SFG Johan Oviedo David BednarL3:29 Colin HoldermanL3:14 Dauri MoretaL3:18 Robert StephensonL3:10, Jose HernandezL3:34, Roansy ContrerasL3:22, Rob ZastryznyL3:31, Yohan Ramirez Cody BoltonL3:38
SDP @MIA Ryan Weathers* Josh Hader Nick MartinezL3:29 Steven Wilson Tim Hill, Tom Cosgrove, Brent HoneywellL3:32, Domingo TapiaL3:12 Drew CarltonL3:36
SEA NYY Logan Gilbert Paul SewaldL3:15 Justin TopaL3:36 Trevor GottL3:21 Matt BrashL3:9, Gabe SpeierL3:17, Tayler SaucedoL3:20, Juan ThenL3:29 Chris FlexenL3:38
SFG PIT John Brebbia** Camilo DovalL3:29 Tyler RogersL3:16 John Brebbia Taylor RogersL3:10, Scott Alexander, Jakob Junis, Ryan WalkerL3:16 Sean Manaea
STL KCR Miles Mikolas Ryan HelsleyL3:33, Giovanny GallegosL3:5 Jordan HicksL3:23 Andre PallanteL3:18 Génesis CabreraL3:3, Drew VerHagenL3:40, Chris StrattonL3:8 Steven MatzL3:50
TBR @CHC Shane McClanahan Jason AdamL3:38 Colin PocheL3:22 Kevin KellyL3:12 Jalen BeeksL3:19, Jake DiekmanL3:10, Calvin Faucher, Trevor KelleyL3:45 Joe La SorsaL3:32
TEX @DET Martín Pérez Will SmithL3:26 Brock BurkeL3:25 José LeclercL3:13 Jonathan HernándezL3:25, Josh SborzL3:11, Joe Barlow, Cole RagansL3:28, Grant Anderson John KingL3:4
TOR MIL Yusei Kikuchi Jordan RomanoL3:16 Erik SwansonL3:18 Nate Pearson Tim Mayza, Trevor RichardsL3:24, Adam CimberL3:26, Yimi GarcíaL3:20 Anthony BassL3:21
WSN @LAD Jake Irvin Kyle FinneganL3:22, Hunter HarveyL3:19 Carl Edwards Jr.L3:18 Andrés Machado, Mason ThompsonL3:19, Chad KuhlL3:27, Erasmo RamírezL3:8 Thaddeus WardL3:30


Date Team Player Category Description
5/30 BOS Ryan Sherriff PROMOTION Recalled from minors
5/30 DET Braden Bristo PROMOTION Recalled from minors
5/30 LAD Alex Vesia PROMOTION Recalled from minors
5/29 CHW Liam Hendriks INJURIES Activated from 15-Day IL
5/29 TBR Trevor Kelley PROMOTION Recalled from minors
5/29 TEX Grant Anderson PROMOTION Contract selected from minors
submitted by wdmcarth to fantasybaseball [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 17:00 One_Of_One101 If Ausar is a more accomplished player than Amen, why is there such a gap?

“Ausar is seen as the better shooter, 2x MVP of OTE, and the clutchest of the two in most scouts eyes” -Rafael Barlowe(Locked On NBA Big Board)
🤔, also said the city reaper’s offense ran better when Ausar ran the show instead of Amen.
Putting all group-think aside, are scouts overthinking it or are they making reasonable observations?
submitted by One_Of_One101 to NBA_Draft [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 16:12 Kultha Time Trial now records PP and other details.

Time Trial now records PP and other details.
And my OCD a** tells me to redo all this again…
submitted by Kultha to granturismo [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 15:55 CheetahChrome Unable to Switch QMerit Install to New Home

Purchased EUV in January, went through hoops with Qmerit, got an install date set, discovered we were moving to a new home and canceled install with electrician.
  1. Contacted QMerit to request a change of location; No bueno but happy to cancel operation fully.
  2. Contacted dealer; no bueno but gave number to Chevrolet Electric Concierge (?).
  3. Chevrolet says I can only use the charge credit and not the install at this time and would contact dealership to initiate the credit. They did not give specific reason.
Ya I get that we, switched horses mid-stream, but wanted to parlay what happened to the group.
submitted by CheetahChrome to BoltEV [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 15:20 Dismal-Mix-6661 Paragon Aluminum Bed Cover

Paragon Aluminum Bed Cover
Thoughts on this paragon bed cover?
submitted by Dismal-Mix-6661 to Silverado [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 15:04 Floodman11 Everything YOU need to know about the 2023 edition of the 24 Hours of Le Mans - Ask your questions here!

With only days separating us from the Centenary Edition of the 24 Heures du Mans, it's time again for the Le Mans Primer thread! This is the place if you’ve got any questions about the 2023 Le Mans event, no matter how small! There are no dumb questions about Le Mans!


The Race

It all comes back to Le Mans. A century ago, people asked ‘Could a car continue to drive for 24 hours straight?’, an event was made to test that theory, and a legacy in racing, motorsport, and motoring was born. The 24 Heures du Mans is the holy grail of endurance motor racing, and brings up its Centenary edition this year. In its 100 year history, the 24 Hours of Le Mans is recognised as the most prestigious and gruelling test for innovations and improvements in motorsport technology. Technologies such as disk and air brakes, streamlined bodywork, fuel, oil, and lubricant improvements, improvements to engine efficiency and longevity, even things as simple as LED lighting and windscreen wiper blades have been trialled and tested at Le Mans. The normally hot conditions in the middle of June stretch the limits of reliability, with all the teams knowing that in order to beat their competitors, they must first beat the event. A variety of different engine configurations, displacements, positions, fuels, and hybrids have won over the history of the event. So far, petrol-fuelled traditional piston engines have been the most successful. Mazda managed to win using a Wankel Rotary engine in 1991 with the Mazda 787b (oh god listen to that sound!), while Audi was the first to win with an alternate fuel, taking victory in the diesel-powered R10 TDI in 2006. 2012 ushered in the era of the Hybrid, with Audi taking victory in the R18 e-tron Quattro, featuring a flywheel hybrid engine.


The Qualifying format for Le Mans is unique to the event, and called Hyperpole. In this format, all classes are permitted to use the track in the 1 hour qualifying session on Wednesday evening. The top 6 cars from each of the 4 classes then progress to the Hyperpole session on Thursday night, which sets the top of the grid for each class. This means that each class will be segregated on the final grid.

Session Times

  • Ligier European Series Practice 1 – Sunday June 4th, 08:00 Local, 06:00 UTC, 02:00 ET, 16:00 AEST – 45 Minutes
  • Ligier European Series Qualifying 1 – Sunday June 4th, 09:15 Local, 07:15 UTC, 03:15 ET, 17:15 AEST – 20 Minutes
  • Test Day Session 1 - Sunday June 4th, 10:00 Local, 08:00 UTC, 04:00 ET, 18:00 AEST – 3 Hours
  • Ligier European Series Race - Sunday June 4th, 14:00 Local, 12:00 UTC, 08:00 ET, 22:00 AEST – 60 Minutes
  • Test Day Session 2 - Sunday June 4th, 15:30 Local, 13:30 UTC, 09:30 ET, 23:30 AEST – 3 Hours
  • Porsche Carrera Cup Practice 1 – Wednesday June 7th, 09:00 Local, 07:00 UTC, 03:00 ET, 17:00 AEST – 45 Minutes
  • Ferrari Challenge Practice 1 – Wednesday June 7th, 10:15 Local, 08:15 UTC, 04:15 ET, 18:15 AEST - 45 Minutes
  • Road To Le Mans Practice 1 – Wednesday June 7th, 11:30 Local, 09:30 UTC, 05:30 ET, 19:30 AEST – 1 Hour
  • Free Practice 1 - Wednesday June 7th, 14:00 Local, 12:00 UTC, 08:00 ET, 22:00 AEST - 3 Hours
  • Qualifying Practice - Wednesday June 7th. 19:00 Local, 17:00 UTC, 13:00 ET, Thursday 03:00 AEST - 1 Hour
  • Road To Le Mans Practice 2 – Wednesday June 7th, 20:30 Local, 18:30 UTC, 14:30 ET, Thursday 04:30 AEST - 1 Hour
  • Free Practice 2 - Wednesday June 7th, 22:00 Local, 20:00 UTC, 16:00 ET, Thursday 06:00 AEST - 2 Hours
  • Ferrari Challenge Practice 2 – Thursday June 8th, 09:00 Local, 07:00 UTC, 03:00 ET, 17:00 AEST – 45 Minutes
  • Porsche Carrera Cup Practice 2 – Thursday June 8th, 10:55 Local, 08:55 UTC, 04:55 ET, 18:55 AEST – 45 Minutes
  • Road To Le Mans Qualifying Practice – Thursday June 8th, 12:55 Local, 10:55 UTC, 06:55 UTC, 20:55 AEST – 20 Minutes x 2 Classes
  • Free Practice 3 - Thursday June 8th, 15:00 Local, 13:00 UTC, 09:00 ET, 23:00 AEST - 3 Hours
  • Road To Le Mans Race 1 - Thursday June 8th, 18:30 Local, 16:30 UTC, 12:30 ET, Friday 02:30 AEST - 55 Minutes
  • HYPERPOLE - Thursday June 8th, 20:00 Local, 18:00 UTC, 14:00 ET, Friday 04:00 AEST - 30 Minutes
  • Free Practice 4 - Thursday June 8th, 22:00 Local, 20:00 UTC, 16:00 ET, Friday 06:00 AEST - 2 Hours
  • Porsche Carrera Cup Qualifying – Friday June 9th, 09:00 Local, 07:00 UTC, 03:00 ET, 17:00 AEST – 45 Minutes
  • Ferrari Challenge Qualifying – Friday June 9th, 10:15 Local, 08:15 UTC, 04:15 ET, 18:15 AEST – 45 Minutes
  • Road To Le Mans Race 2 - Friday June 9th, 11:30 Local, 09:30 UTC, 05:30 ET, 19:30 AEST – 55 Minutes
  • Ferrari Challenge Race 1 - Saturday June 10th, 09:30 Local, 07:30 UTC, 03:30 ET, 17:30 AEST - 45 Minutes
  • Porsche Carrera Cup Race 1 - Saturday June 10th, 10:45 Local, 08:45 UTC, 04:45 ET, 18:45 AEST - 45 Minutes
  • Warm Up - Saturday June 10th, 12:00 Local, 10:00 UTC, 06:00 ET, 20:00 AEST – 15 Minutes
  • RACE START - **Saturday June 11th, 16:00 Local, 14:00 UTC, 10:00 ET, Sunday 00:00 AEST

The Track

The Circuit de la Sarthe covers 13.6 kilometres of the French country side. It combines the permanent race components of the Ford Chicanes, the pit straight, under the Dunlop Bridge and through to Tertre Rouge as well as the normal everyday roads of the Mulsanne straight through to Indianapolis and Arnage. The track has gone through many iterations over the years; originally, the cars raced into the heart of the city, turning just before the river Sarthe, before hurtling down the 8.6 kilometre straight. In 1932, the circuit removed the journey into the city, and more closely resembled the track we see today. Here’s a video of Mike Hawthorn touring the circuit with a camera and microphone attached in 1956, one year after his involvement in the Le Mans disaster. The addition of the Porsche Curves and the Ford Chicanes in 1972 added an extra dimension to the high speed, fast flowing track. In the late 80’s, the Group C prototype cars would reach over 400km/h, achieving average speeds of almost 250km/h in qualifying for the entire lap. This is an onboard of Derek Bell’s Porsche 956 in 1983, showing the ridiculous speeds on this configuration of the circuit. This configuration remained relatively unchanged right up to 1990, until FIA mandations required that for the circuit to be sanctioned, it must not have a straight longer than 2km. The 6km Mulsanne straight was cut down into three relatively equal length portions by two chicanes, giving the iteration of the circuit used today. Allan McNish takes you on an onboard lap of the 2008 circuit in this video. McNish is one of the gods of the modern prototype era, winning Le Mans 3 times; once with Porsche and twice with Audi. For a more comprehensive focus on the track, John Hindhaugh’s track walk takes you on a 30 minute exploration of the track, with in depth focus on corners like the Dunlop Esses, Tertre Rouge, Mulsanne Corner, and the Ford Chicanes.
For some modern on boards, check out the fastest ever lap in the Circuit de la Sarthe: Kamui Kobayashi's 3:14.791 in 2017 Q2, and last year’s Hyperpole lap, by Brendon Hartley, setting a 3:24.408
The Dunlop Bridge
The iconic Dunlop Bridge has been a part of the Le Mans track since 1932, making it the oldest Dunlop Bridge at any track. This part of the track requires a good launch out of the first chicane before cresting the brow of the hill, and plunging through the esses out onto the Mulsanne straight. As the LMP cars are much more maneuverable, caution must be taken passing the slower GT traffic, as Allan McNish discovered in 2011.
Tertre Rouge
Tertre Rouge is the corner that launches the cars onto the long Mulsanne straight. Maintaining momentum through this corner as it opens on exit is imperative to ensure maximum straight line speed heading down the first part of the Mulsanne. The undulation in the road makes for fantastic viewing at night, with some magic images of the Porsches throwing up sparks on the exit in 2014. Finally, this was the location of Allan Simonsen’s fatal crash in mixed conditions in the 2013 Le Mans. The Danish flags will fly at the corner in his memory.
Mulsanne Corner
After the incredibly long Mulsanne straight, the Mulsanne corner nowadays features a subtle right hand kink before the tight 90 degree turn. Here, the cars decelerate from 340 km/h down to below 100 km/h, resulting in a brilliant opportunity to overtake. Again, care must be taken overtaking slower traffic; unaware drivers have caught out faster cars attempting to pass through the kink, such as Anthony Davidson’s spectacular crash in 2012 resulting in a broken vertebra for Davidson.
Indianapolis and Arnage
The Indanapolis and Arnage complex is one of the most committed areas of the track. Hurtling down the hill from the Mulsanne Corner, the road suddenly bends to the right, a corner which only the bravest prototype drivers take flat out, followed by a beautifully cambered open left hander taken in third gear. A short sprint leads the cars into Arnage, the slowest point on the track. The tight right hander was the scene of heartbreak for Toyota in 2014 when the leading #7 broke down and had to be retired after an FIA sensor melted and shut off the electronics. Kazuki Nakajiima was unable to make it to the pits, leaving him stranded on the circuit.
The Porsche Curves
At a terrifyingly high speed, the Porsche Curves is the most committed part of the lap. Getting caught behind GT traffic in this section can mean losing phenomenal amounts of time. This was the site of Loic Duval’s horrific crash in practice for the 2014 event. Keeping momentum through the flowing right-left-right handers that lead into Maison Blanche requires 100% commitment and ultimate precision, with severe punishment for getting it wrong. The exit of the Porsche Curves underwent significant change in 2020, with additional run-off added in the middle part of the section. This has turned the treacherous and claustrophobic sweeping left-hander into an open and sweeping corner, encouraging every little bit of road to be used on the exit. What it hasn’t changed is the terrific consequences for making a mistake
The Ford Chicanes
The final chapter in the 13.6km rollercoaster that is Le Mans is the Ford Chicanes. Two tight left-right handers with massive kerbs are all that separates the driver from the finish line. Watching the cars bounce over the kerbs in beautiful slow motion is certainly something to behold, but 24 hours of mistreatment can lead to suspension and steering issues. The drivers have to be attentive until the very end, lest they throw it all away in the last minutes of the race.
The Circuit de la Sarthe requires over 85% of the lap on full throttle, with the cars accelerating from less than 100km/h to over 300km/h five times each lap. The challenge of having a car finish Le Mans is in itself, an achievement.

The Classes

The WEC consists of three classes on track at once, resulting in three separate races on track each in their own battle for 24 Hours. The classes are split based on their car type, with LMH and LMDh machinery facing off in the Hypercar class, purpose built prototypes with a spec engine and gearbox battling in LMP2, and GT machinery racing in GTE. Each class has its own set of regulations, driver requirements, and relevance for the Le Mans event.


The current top class of endurance sportscars is Hypercar, combining cars built to Le Mans Hypercar (LMH) and Le Mans Daytona (LMDh) specifications. Fighting it out will be LMH machinery from Toyota, Ferrari, Peugeot, Glickenhaus and Peugeot, while Porsche and Cadillac will be racing in LMDh cars. The LMH cars are bespoke sportscars, designed to a strict set of requirements dictating maximum power, drag coefficient, and weight, amongst other parameters, intended to limit the cost of the category. LMDh machines on the other hand are based on the future LMP2 chassis offerings, with manufacturers able to develop their own engines and bodywork, aligning with the power and drag coefficients of LMH. As part of cost-cutting, the Hypercar class is also subject to a Balance of Performance (BoP) formula, to level the playing field and ensure good racing! Hypercars are a little slower than their LMP1 predecessors, with lap times around the 3:24 mark for the Circuit de la Sarthe, which is on par with the 2014 LMP1 cars.


The second prototype class is LMP2, and provides an excellent platform for endurance racing on a budget. The LMP2 class features a spec drivetrain and gearbox, using a Gibson V8 producing 400kW, and a selection of three chassis to choose from, of which the Oreca 07 has been the chassis of choice. This ensures that the competition in the class is very tight, and often comes down to the drivers and the team’s performance instead of just having the best car. While LMP2 was capable of 3:25 lap times in years previous, part of the ‘stratification’ of classes with Hypercar’s inclusion, the LMP2 class has lost some power and had some weight added. This should put LMP2 at the heels of the LMH pace, but with laptimes outside the 3:28 mark.
LMP2 is the first class that must feature amateur rated drivers. The Amateurs must drive for a minimum of 6 hours in the car over the course of the race. This means that there's an element of strategy of when to use your amateur driver throughout the race, as the amateur driver is generally slower than the Pros. The pro drivers in this class range from up and coming talent, former F1 drivers, and some of the best sportscar pilots in the world, and with 244 cars in this class, LMP2 is sure to be a hotbed of action over the 24 hours.


GT class cars are cars that are derived from production models, and feature some of the most iconic cars and brands battling it out at the top of the field. The GTE cars are on the border of aero dependency, and can lap Le Mans in around 3:45 in a professional driver’s hands.
This year is the last year of the GTE class, and features 21 cars in a Pro-Am category, with cars from Ferrari, Porsche, Aston Martin, and Chevrolet on the grid. Despite the lack of a Pro category, the driver quality in GTE-Am is still incredibly high, with factory drivers, young stars, experienced champions and every level of experience in between on the grid, with each car featuring two Bronze or Silver rated drivers. With two amateur drivers, the strategy considerations multiply. While GTE-Am might be the class focussed on the least over the course of the race, the stories that come from this class are phenomenal, and it's well worth following.
The GT classes feature a range of different cars and configurations, and to equalise each of these against each other, the class goes through a process called 'Balance of Performance' or BoP. The organisers can adjust each individual car's weight, fuel tank, air restrictor, turbo boost pressures, and aero performance to alter performance levels to enable the different cars to race competitively. This can sometimes be contentious as every team will feel hard done by, but it is a necessary evil to having the variety of cars on the grid.

Innovative Car

Each year, there is the option for an Innovative Car, with untested or innovative technology, allowed to enter in it’s own category. In years past, this has allowed for entries from the Deltawing, or a modified LMP2 to allow amputees to race.
This year, the Innovative Car entry is a modified Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 Next-Gen NASCAR, run by Hendrick Motorsports. The Next-Gen NASCAR features modifications to allow it to run safely on the Circuit de la Sarthe, and will be driven by multiple NASCAR Cup champion Jimmie Johnson, Formula 1 World Champion Jenson Button, and Le Mans Overall Winner Mike Rockenfeller.

The Legends

Part of the allure of the Le Mans 24 Hours is the history, and the legends steeped in history over the course of its 88 previous editions. The race has had many headline battles in its history - periods of time where two or three teams went toe to toe for years, with the drivers, cars, and brands embroiled in these battles given the chance to elevate themselves above the rest, and show their prowess.
In 2019, we at /WEC, took our normal Le Mans Legends celebrations to a new level; each week, members of the community have been writing reviews on some of the closest, most fascinating finishes in Le Mans history! You can check out these reports below!
Bonus CookieMonsterFL Write-Ups
For a bite-sized history lesson on every Le Mans event, check out this post by u/JohannesMeanAd2, describing every Le Mans in a single sentence!
The early races were dominated by the Bentley company in their Speed 6, who won 5 of the first 7 races. Cars were separated into classes by their engine displacement, and the overall winner was based on distance covered. If two cars had finished with the same number of laps, the car with the smaller displacement was declared the winner. The race wasn't run during the second world war, and comparatively very little information is available on the stories of the early days of Le Mans.
After the second world war, teams such as Jaguar, Ferrari, Mercedes, and Aston Martin became the dominant teams. This era featured the legendary Jaguar D type, the Mercedes Benz 300 SLR, the Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa, and the Aston Martin DBR1. Jaguar won 5 times between 1951 and 1957, followed by an era of Ferrari dominance. Drivers such as Mike Hawthorn, Stirling Moss, Juan Manuel Fangio, and John Fitch became household names as Le Mans became a battle between German engineering and British "garagistas".
Ferrari and Ford was the story of the 60's, with Ferrari winning 6 times straight before Ford won four in a row with the GT40 Mk II, taking their first win in 1966. The story of their rivalry is legendary in it's own right - Henry Ford had almost successfully bought out the Ferrari motor company, only to be knocked back by Enzo himself at the 11th hour. In retaliation, Ford planned to hurt Ferrari where it mattered most; on the track. The Ford GT40 was so comprehensively dominant that it won the 1966 edition 21 laps ahead of the next car back - a Porsche 906/6. None of the Ferrari 330P3's finished the race. This battle gave drivers like Bruce Mclaren, Dan Gurney, and Jacky Ickx their first Le Mans victories, and propelled them to the forefront of motorsport stardom at the height of motorsport's popularity.
The 1970's saw the dawn of Porsche, with the 917k taking the brand's first win in 1970, with the same car winning the following year in the hands of Helmut Marko (yes, that Helmut Marko). It would be 5 years before Porsche would win again, with Matra taking 3 victories in the interim, each at the hands of Henri Pescarolo. Porsche returned with the 936 and the 956/962c dominating the race for the next 20 years. In fact, from 1970, Porsche won 12 times in 18 events, including 7 in a row, and they miiight have been a bit cheeky about it. Amongst these 12 wins, there were 4 for both Jacky Ickx and Derek Bell, and two for IMSA legend Hurley Haywood, as well as the first win for the Joest team in 1984. This era coincided with the introduction, and subsequent destruction of the Group C sportscar formula, widely regarded as the best Sportscar championship regulations of all time. Porsche’s dominance was eventually ended by Jaguar in the XJR-9LM, at the height of Group C’s magic. Ickx's 6 wins at this stage had earned him the nickname 'Mr Le Mans', a fitting title for one of the best drivers in the world at the time.
GT cars became a force to be reckoned with at the end of the Group C era, with classes being split into LMGTP and LMP. McLaren and Porsche had wins in GTP cars, in the F1 GTR and the 911 GT1 respectively, while Porsche, BMW and Peugeot scored LMP wins. 1997 saw the first win for Tom Kristensen, while the following year Allan McNish took his first victory, starting their journeys into the legend books of Le Mans.
The 2000’s ushered in the era of Audi, with all 13 of their wins coming since the turn of the century. GTP was disbanded due to safety issues, being replaced by GT1 and GT2. Audi picked up wins in the R8, the R10, the R15, and the R18, often dominating the might of the Peugeot 908. Audi's dominance elevated not only their drivers to legend status, but also their team managers, car designers, and race engineers. People like Reinhold Joest (team manager), Dr Wolfgang Ullrich (Audisport director), Ulrich Baretzky (engine designer), Leena Gade, Howden Haynes (race engineers) behind the wall and Allan McNish, Tom Kristensen, Rinaldo Capello, Marcel Fassler, Andre Lotterer and Benoit Treluyer have become household names in the sport not only for their wins, but their longevity and domination. Audi's dominance was only broken by a win for Bentley in 2003, running basically an Audi under a British racing green skin, and Peugeot in 2009, before being ended for good by Porsche in 2015. After both Porsche and Audi left the top class, Toyota rose to dominance, taking the last 3 Le Mans events in a row!
Between 2015 and 2017, Porsche added to their victories, now holding a record 19 overall victories at the Circuit de la Sarthe. Audi trail with 13, with Ferrari, Jaguar and Bentley holding the next three positions. Toyota finally took their first overall victory in 2018, and have won every year since. Tom Kristensen is has the most victories at Le Mans, with 9 overall victories over his career with Porsche, Audi and Bentley, inheriting the title of Mr Le Mans.

Videos and Documentaries

Entry List

Spotters Guide to be added when released!

Once again, /WEC will have a community spotters guide thanks to the efforts of Ziombel_444! The planned release date is the 6th of June, so keep your eyes peeled for that!

Check out Ziombel_444's other work at Spotters.Guide, and support this great effort!

Endurance Chat

/WEC's podcast, Endurance Chat, will have four episodes in the lead up to Le Mans, as well as a Pre-Pre-Race show in the hours before the event. Watch this space for updates!
  • Endurance Chat S8E11 – The Centenary 24 Hours of Le Mans Preview - History, context, and insight into this year’s edition of the Le Mans 24 Hours
  • Endurance Chat S8E12 - The 2023 Le Mans 24 Hour Hypercar Class Guide – COMING SOON
  • Endurance Chat S8E13 - The 2023 Le Mans 24 Hour LMP2 Class Guide – COMING SOON
  • Endurance Chat S8E14 – The 2023 Le Mans 24 Hour LMGTE-Am Class Guide – COMING SOON
In addition, Endurance Chat made a series of features detailing the history of sportscars in the late 60’s and early 70’s, at the transition point of GT and Prototype machinery. The series details some of the machinery, events, and drivers in one of the fastest and most dangerous periods in racing history. You can find a playlist to these features here!

Streaming and Television

In the past, the FIAWEC Broadcast has started from Qualifying Practice. We are awaiting confirmation if that is the case this year – Streams for non-FIAWEC sessions after that point will be subject to the organisers of those series broadcasting those sessions.

  • Official stream OUTSIDE US ONLY - The Le Mans package gives you access to all WEC sessions (Qualifying, Warm Up and the Race) with a choice of on boards, cross platform compatibility, and up to 5 devices connected at once. Additionally, replays of the event are free after the event. Official comms headed by Martin Haven, Anthony Davidson, and Graham Goodwin, who in my personal opinion properly nail the tone of the event. Has been known to get overloaded and crash however
  • Eurosport will likely be broadcasting the event in a variety of locales throughout Europe. This will be updated when confirmed
  • Radio Le Mans will be streaming live radio for every session
For American audiences, unfortunately the Official stream is geoblocked for your area. Information on how to watch will be updated when confirmed
  • [Official TV Broadcast distribution](COMING SOON) Find out how to watch in your region!
Any further updates on TV or Streaming distribution will be added as they are released!

Social Media

If you're looking for more interaction, you can find most of the teams, drivers and commentators on Twitter, giving you instant interaction with those in the midst of the event.

If someone wants to make a twitter list for the teams/driveetc for this year, that would be greatly appreciated!

Live timing

Be sure to join the discord for alternate timing solutions!

Get Involved!

By far the most fun you can have watching an endurance race is watching it with the official /WEC Discord! It's a lot of fun and a really great atmosphere to watch the race in!
If you want to have a go at picking who you think will be winning in each class, jump into mwclarkson's Fantasy Endurance Contest! It's free to enter, and if you win, you'll get the satisfaction and achievement of being right!
If there's anything you'd like us to add, or need clarification on, please comment below and we'll add it in!`
submitted by Floodman11 to wec [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 12:10 Dowdidik Corrélations génétiques des différents troubles mentaux et notion de "spectre".

Corrélations génétiques des différents troubles mentaux et notion de

Des variantes génétiques similaires semblent être à l'origine d'un certain nombre de troubles psychiatriques. Dans une étude portant sur 200 000 personnes (8), la schizophrénie présentait une corrélation significative avec la plupart des autres troubles. En revanche, certains troubles tels que le syndrome de stress post-traumatique (PTSD) ne présentaient que de faibles corrélations avec d'autres pathologies. - Marshall, M. (2020). The hidden links between mental disorders. Nature, 581(7806), 19–21. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00922-8

Je trouve intéressant de vous partager l'article publié dans Nature en 2020 en lien avec cette carte :

Les racines de la maladie mentale.

Les chercheurs commencent à démêler la biologie commune qui relie des troubles psychiatriques supposés distincts. Par Michael Marshall
En 2018, le psychiatre Oleguer Plana-Ripoll s'est heurté à un fait déroutant concernant les troubles mentaux. Il savait que de nombreuses personnes souffraient de plusieurs maladies - anxiété et dépression, par exemple, ou schizophrénie et troubles bipolaires. Il a donc mis la main sur une base de données contenant les informations médicales d'environ 5,9 millions de citoyens danois.
Il a été stupéfait par ce qu'il a découvert. Chaque trouble mental prédisposait le patient à tous les autres troubles mentaux, quelle que soit la différence des symptômes1. "Nous savions que la comorbidité était importante, mais nous ne nous attendions pas à trouver des associations pour toutes les paires", explique Plana-Ripoll, qui travaille à l'université d'Aarhus au Danemark.
L'étude aborde une question fondamentale qui préoccupe les chercheurs depuis plus d'un siècle. Quelles sont les racines de la maladie mentale ?
Dans l'espoir de trouver une réponse, les scientifiques ont accumulé une énorme quantité de données au cours de la dernière décennie, en étudiant les gènes, l'activité cérébrale et la neuroanatomie. Ils ont découvert que de nombreux gènes identiques sont à l'origine de troubles apparemment distincts, tels que la schizophrénie et l'autisme, et que des changements dans les systèmes de prise de décision du cerveau pourraient être impliqués dans de nombreuses affections.
Les chercheurs sont également en train de repenser radicalement les théories sur la façon dont notre cerveau se dérègle. L'idée selon laquelle les maladies mentales peuvent être classées dans des catégories distinctes et discrètes, telles que l'"anxiété" ou la "psychose", a été largement réfutée. Au contraire, les troubles se fondent les uns dans les autres et il n'existe pas de lignes de démarcation nettes, comme l'a clairement démontré l'étude de Plana-Ripoll.
Aujourd'hui, les chercheurs tentent de comprendre la biologie qui sous-tend ce spectre de psychopathologie.
Ils ont formulé quelques théories. Il existe peut-être plusieurs dimensions de la maladie mentale, de sorte que, selon les résultats obtenus pour chacune d'entre elles, une personne serait plus encline à souffrir de certains troubles que d'autres. Une autre idée, plus radicale, est qu'il existe un facteur unique qui rend les personnes sujettes aux maladies mentales en général : le trouble qu'elles développent est alors déterminé par d'autres facteurs. Les deux idées sont prises au sérieux, bien que le concept de dimensions multiples soit plus largement accepté par les chercheurs.
Les détails sont encore flous, mais la plupart des psychiatres s'accordent à dire qu'une chose est claire : l'ancien système consistant à classer les troubles mentaux dans des catégories précises ne fonctionne pas. Ils espèrent également qu'à long terme, le remplacement de ce cadre par un autre fondé sur la biologie débouchera sur de nouvelles drogues et de nouveaux traitements. Les chercheurs visent à révéler, par exemple, les gènes clés, les régions du cerveau et les processus neurologiques impliqués dans la psychopathologie, et à les cibler avec des thérapies. Bien qu'il faille un certain temps pour y parvenir, Steven Hyman, du Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard à Cambridge (Massachusetts), déclare : "Je suis optimiste à long terme si le domaine fait vraiment son travail".

Un florilège de troubles.

Le défi le plus immédiat est de savoir comment diagnostiquer les personnes. Depuis les années 1950, les psychiatres utilisent un ouvrage exhaustif appelé Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, qui en est actuellement à sa cinquième édition. Il répertorie tous les troubles reconnus, de l'autisme aux troubles obsessionnels compulsifs en passant par la dépression, l'anxiété et la schizophrénie. Chaque trouble est défini par des symptômes. L'hypothèse inhérente est que chaque trouble est distinct et survient pour des raisons différentes.
Cependant, avant même la publication du DSM-5 en 2013, de nombreux chercheurs affirmaient que cette approche était erronée. "N'importe quel clinicien aurait pu vous dire que les patients n'avaient pas lu le DSM et ne s'y conformaient pas", explique M. Hyman, qui a participé à la rédaction de la cinquième édition du manuel.
Peu de patients correspondent à un ensemble de critères précis. Au contraire, les personnes présentent souvent un mélange de symptômes liés à différents troubles. Même si une personne a reçu un diagnostic assez clair de dépression, elle présente souvent des symptômes d'un autre trouble, comme l'anxiété. "Si vous souffrez d'un trouble, vous avez beaucoup plus de chances d'en souffrir d'un autre", explique Ted Satterthwaite, neuropsychiatre à l'université de Pennsylvanie, à Philadelphie.
Cela implique que la façon dont les cliniciens ont divisé les troubles mentaux est erronée. Les psychiatres ont tenté de résoudre ce problème en divisant les troubles en sous-types de plus en plus fins. "Si l'on observe l'évolution du DSM au fil du temps, le livre devient de plus en plus épais", explique M. Satterthwaite. Mais le problème persiste : les sous-types reflètent encore mal l'ensemble des symptômes que présentent de nombreux patients.
C'est pourquoi l'Institut national américain de la santé mentale, le plus grand bailleur de fonds de la science de la santé mentale au monde, a modifié son mode de financement de la recherche. À partir de 2011, il a commencé à exiger davantage d'études sur les fondements biologiques des troubles, plutôt que sur leurs symptômes, dans le cadre d'un programme appelé "Research Domain Criteria" (critères de domaine de recherche). Depuis, la recherche sur les fondements biologiques de la psychopathologie a explosé, les études se concentrant notamment sur la génétique et la neuroanatomie. Mais si les chercheurs espéraient démystifier la psychopathologie, ils ont encore un long chemin à parcourir : la principale découverte a été la complexité de la psychopathologie.

Des clusters controversés.

D'un point de vue clinique, les preuves que les symptômes recoupent plusieurs troubles - ou que les personnes présentent souvent plus d'un trouble - n'ont fait que se renforcer. C'est pourquoi, bien que des symptômes individuels tels que les changements d'humeur ou les troubles du raisonnement puissent être diagnostiqués de manière fiable, il est difficile d'attribuer les patients à un diagnostic global tel que le "trouble bipolaire".
Même des troubles apparemment distincts sont liés. En 2008, la généticienne Angelica Ronald, qui travaillait alors à l'Institut de psychiatrie du King's College de Londres, et ses collègues ont découvert que l'autisme et le trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH) se chevauchaient. "À l'époque, il n'était pas possible d'être diagnostiqué comme souffrant de ces deux troubles", explique Angelica Ronald, en raison d'une règle figurant dans une version antérieure du DSM. Mais elle et son équipe ont découvert que les caractéristiques de l'autisme et du TDAH étaient fortement corrélées et en partie sous contrôle génétique2.
En outre, il semble y avoir des groupes de symptômes qui dépassent les limites des troubles. Une étude de 20183 a examiné des personnes chez qui on avait diagnostiqué soit une dépression majeure, soit un trouble panique, soit un trouble de stress post-traumatique (PTSD). Les volontaires ont été évalués sur la base de leurs symptômes, de leurs performances cognitives et de leur activité cérébrale. Les chercheurs ont constaté que les participants se répartissaient en six groupes, caractérisés par des humeurs distinctes telles que la "tension" et la "mélancolie". Les groupes recoupent les trois catégories diagnostiques comme si elles n'existaient pas. Beaucoup s'accordent aujourd'hui à dire que les catégories diagnostiques sont erronées. La question qui se pose est la suivante : avec la biologie comme guide, à quoi devraient ressembler le diagnostic et le traitement psychiatriques ?

Dimensions multiples.

L'un des principaux modèles consiste à dire qu'il existe un certain nombre de traits neuropsychologiques ou "dimensions" qui varient d'une personne à l'autre. Chaque trait détermine notre susceptibilité à certains types de troubles. Par exemple, une personne peut être sujette à des troubles de l'humeur tels que l'anxiété, mais pas à des troubles de la pensée tels que la schizophrénie.
Cette approche est similaire à la façon dont les psychologues conçoivent la personnalité. Dans un modèle, cinq traits de personnalité, tels que le caractère consciencieux et le névrosisme, décrivent la plupart des variations de la personnalité humaine.
Certains psychiatres tentent déjà de réimaginer leur discipline en tenant compte des dimensions. Au début des années 2010, des pressions ont été exercées pour éliminer les catégories de troubles du DSM-5 au profit d'une approche "dimensionnelle" basée sur des symptômes individuels. Cette tentative a échoué, en partie parce que le financement des soins de santé et les soins aux patients ont été construits autour des catégories du DSM. Toutefois, d'autres catalogues de troubles ont évolué vers la dimensionnalité. En 2019, l'Assemblée mondiale de la santé a approuvé la dernière classification internationale des maladies (appelée CIM-11), dans laquelle certaines psychopathologies ont été décomposées en symptômes dimensionnels plutôt qu'en catégories.
Le défi posé par l'hypothèse de la dimensionnalité est évident : combien y a-t-il de dimensions et quelles sont-elles ? Satterthwaite parle d'un "très gros problème".
Une théorie populaire4, soutenue par de nombreuses études au cours de la dernière décennie, plaide en faveur de deux dimensions seulement. La première comprend tous les troubles "intériorisés", tels que la dépression, dont les symptômes primaires affectent l'état interne de la personne. Elle s'oppose aux troubles "extériorisés", tels que l'hyperactivité et le comportement antisocial, qui affectent la réaction d'une personne au monde. Si une personne a été diagnostiquée avec deux troubles ou plus, les études suggèrent qu'il s'agit probablement de la même catégorie.
Mais des études combinant de grandes quantités de données d'imagerie cérébrale avec l'apprentissage automatique ont abouti à des chiffres différents, même dans des études réalisées par le même laboratoire. L'année dernière, Satterthwaite et son groupe ont publié une étude5 portant sur 1 141 jeunes présentant des symptômes d'intériorisation et ont constaté qu'ils pouvaient être divisés en deux groupes sur la base de leur structure et de leur fonction cérébrale. En 2018, Satterthwaite a mené une étude similaire6 et a identifié quatre dimensions, chacune associée à un modèle distinct de connectivité cérébrale.
À terme, une future version du DSM pourrait comporter des chapitres consacrés à chaque dimension, explique M. Hyman. Ces chapitres pourraient énumérer les troubles qui se regroupent dans chaque dimension, ainsi que leurs symptômes et tout biomarqueur dérivé de la physiologie et de la génétique sous-jacentes. Deux personnes présentant des symptômes similaires mais des mutations ou des altérations neuroanatomiques différentes pourraient alors être diagnostiquées et traitées différemment.

Dans les gènes.

L'un des piliers de cette approche future est une meilleure compréhension de la génétique des maladies mentales. Au cours de la dernière décennie, les études sur la génétique psychopathologique sont devenues suffisamment importantes pour permettre de tirer des conclusions solides.
Ces études révèlent qu'aucun gène individuel ne contribue fortement au risque de psychopathologie ; au contraire, des centaines de gènes ont chacun un petit effet. Une étude de 20097 a révélé que des milliers de variantes génétiques constituaient des facteurs de risque pour la schizophrénie. Nombre d'entre elles étaient également associées au trouble bipolaire, ce qui suggère que certains gènes contribuent aux deux troubles.
Cela ne veut pas dire que les mêmes gènes sont impliqués dans tous les troubles cérébraux, loin de là. Une équipe dirigée par le généticien Benjamin Neale du Massachusetts General Hospital de Boston et le psychiatre Aiden Corvin du Trinity College de Dublin a découvert en 2018 que les troubles neurologiques tels que l'épilepsie et la sclérose en plaques sont génétiquement distincts des troubles psychiatriques tels que la schizophrénie et la dépression8 (voir la "Carte mentale").
Ces études ont toutes porté sur des variantes communes, qui sont les plus faciles à détecter. Certaines études récentes se sont plutôt concentrées sur des variantes extrêmement rares, qui suggèrent des différences génétiques entre les troubles. Une étude portant sur plus de 12 000 personnes9 a révélé que les personnes atteintes de schizophrénie présentaient un taux anormalement élevé de mutations ultra-rare - et que celles-ci étaient souvent propres à un seul individu.
Le résultat est un véritable gâchis. Il est difficile de prédire quels sont les facteurs de risque qui s'appliquent à toutes les maladies. "Certains d'entre eux sont largement partagés par l'ensemble des psychopathologies", déclare Neale, "tandis que d'autres sont un peu plus spécifiques à une ou quelques formes de psychopathologie".

Le facteur p

Certains psychiatres ont avancé une hypothèse radicale qui, espèrent-ils, leur permettra de donner un sens à ce chaos. Si les troubles partagent des symptômes, ou cooccurrent, et si de nombreux gènes sont impliqués dans de multiples troubles, il existe peut-être un facteur unique qui prédispose les personnes à la psychopathologie.
Cette idée a été proposée pour la première fois en 2012 par Benjamin Lahey, spécialiste de la santé publique à l'université de Chicago, dans l'Illinois10. Lahey et ses collègues ont étudié les symptômes de 11 troubles. Ils ont utilisé des statistiques pour déterminer si le modèle pouvait être expliqué au mieux par trois dimensions distinctes, ou par ces trois dimensions combinées à une prédisposition "générale". Le modèle fonctionnait mieux si le facteur général était inclus.
L'année suivante, l'hypothèse a reçu plus de soutien - et un nom accrocheur - de la part des psychologues Avshalom Caspi et Terrie Moffitt de l'université Duke à Durham, en Caroline du Nord. Ils ont utilisé les données d'une étude à long terme portant sur 1 037 personnes et ont constaté que la plupart des variations des symptômes pouvaient être expliquées par un seul facteur11.
Caspi et Moffitt ont appelé ce facteur le "facteur p". Depuis 2013, de nombreuses études ont reproduit leur principale découverte. Caspi et Moffitt ont clairement indiqué que le facteur p ne pouvait pas tout expliquer et n'ont fait aucune supposition quant à sa biologie sous-jacente, se contentant d'émettre l'hypothèse qu'un ensemble de gènes pourrait jouer un rôle de médiateur. D'autres ont proposé que le facteur p soit une prédisposition générale à la psychopathologie, mais que d'autres facteurs - expériences stressantes ou autres altérations génétiques - poussent une personne vers différents symptômes12. Mais si ce facteur est réel, il a une implication surprenante : il pourrait y avoir une cible thérapeutique unique pour les troubles psychiatriques.
Certains indices laissent déjà penser que les traitements généralisés pourraient être aussi efficaces que les thérapies ciblées. Une étude réalisée en 201713 a assigné au hasard des personnes souffrant de troubles anxieux, tels que le trouble panique ou le trouble obsessionnel-compulsif, à recevoir soit une thérapie pour leur trouble spécifique, soit une approche généralisée. Les deux thérapies se sont avérées aussi efficaces l'une que l'autre.
Trouver une base physiologique au facteur p serait la première étape vers des thérapies basées sur ce facteur, mais ce n'est que ces dernières années que les chercheurs en ont trouvé des indices dans les données génétiques et neuroanatomiques. Une étude14 sur la génétique de la psychopathologie dans une population britannique, par exemple, a identifié un "facteur génétique p" - un ensemble de gènes dont les variations contribuaient au risque de psychopathologie.
Dans le même temps, d'autres groupes ont cherché un changement neuroanatomique qui se produit dans de multiples psychopathologies. Les résultats sont intrigants, mais contradictoires.
Une étude15 portant sur six psychopathologies a révélé que la matière grise du cerveau diminuait dans trois régions impliquées dans le traitement des émotions : le cingulum antérieur dorsal, l'insula droite et l'insula gauche. Mais des études ultérieures menées par Adrienne Romer, psychologue clinicienne à la Harvard Medical School et à l'hôpital McLean de Belmont (Massachusetts), ont permis d'identifier un trio de régions totalement différent, dont le rôle consiste notamment à gérer les fonctions corporelles de base et les mouvements16 : le pons, le cervelet et une partie du cortex. Pour y voir plus clair, il faut peut-être se concentrer sur la fonction exécutive du cerveau : la capacité à réguler le comportement en planifiant, en prêtant attention et en résistant à la tentation, qui s'appuie sur de nombreuses régions du cerveau. Romer et Satterthwaite ont indépendamment constaté des perturbations des fonctions exécutives dans une série de psychopathologies17,18 - le soupçon étant que ces perturbations pourraient être à l'origine du facteur p.
La plupart des scientifiques s'accordent à dire qu'il faut davantage de données, et nombre d'entre eux ne sont pas convaincus par des explications aussi simples. "Je suis un peu moins sûr que c'est ce qui va se passer", déclare Neale. Au niveau génétique au moins, dit-il, de nombreux troubles, tels que le PTSD et le trouble anxieux généralisé, restent mal compris.
Toutes ces hypothèses générales sont prématurées, selon Hyman. "Je pense que l'heure est à la recherche empirique plutôt qu'aux grandes théories."
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2023.05.30 12:08 JCFalkenberglll A Chevrolet Suburban, 1938 of Hungarian war correspondents at the burned-out railway station in Stary Oskol. July 1942

A Chevrolet Suburban, 1938 of Hungarian war correspondents at the burned-out railway station in Stary Oskol. July 1942 submitted by JCFalkenberglll to WW2info [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 12:05 JCFalkenberglll Captured by the Wehrmacht, a British Chevrolet C8 CMP used as a supply vehicle and a Messerschmitt Bf.109E-7 from JG27 at an airfield in North Africa. 1941

Captured by the Wehrmacht, a British Chevrolet C8 CMP used as a supply vehicle and a Messerschmitt Bf.109E-7 from JG27 at an airfield in North Africa. 1941 submitted by JCFalkenberglll to WW2info [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 10:19 Longjumping-Oven-994 This 67-72 [Chevrolet C30] parked in the back.

This 67-72 [Chevrolet C30] parked in the back. submitted by Longjumping-Oven-994 to spotted [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 09:48 friendlyfire883 Well I finally found my parasitic drain. It turns out it was my $2000 "starter interrupt system" that I didn't know I had.

Well I finally found my parasitic drain. It turns out it was my $2000 submitted by friendlyfire883 to GMT800 [link] [comments]